Politics portal. His father was part of the Umad , or the local ruling elite. His mother was part of the Ashraf. He was educated in Tanta at a private school. A while later Abduh ran away from school and got married.
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Egyptian scholar, journalist, theologian, jurist, grand mufti, and reformer, regarded as an architect of Islamic modernism. Educated at al-Azhar University. Adherent of the Shadhili Sufi order, although he later renounced his Sufi background.
Disciple of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani d. Supported pan-Islamism and political activism. Edited the journal Al-urwah al-wuthqa The strongest bond in the s. Upon returning to Cairo, focused thoughts and efforts on education and the renewal of Islamic theology. Strove to emancipate Muslims from the mentality of taqlid adherence to tradition while retaining Islamic authenticity. Taught that reason and revelation are inherently compatible and harmonious. Most popular work was Risalat al-tawhid The theology of unity , which asserts belief in God as a rational act and the need for rational analysis of revelation.
Declared that any reluctance to apply rationality to social issues or refuse its scientific fruits was a disavowal of divine creation, constituting shirk associationism. Bitterly opposed by some academics and legal scholars. Ideas found continuing expression through the journals Al-manar , published by his disciple Muhammad Rashid Rida d. All Rights Reserved. About What's New Log in. Arberry, first published ; The Qur'an, translated by M. Abdel Haleem, published ; or side-by-side comparison view Arberry Haleem Side-by-side Chapter: verse lookup Select one or both translations, then enter a chapter and verse number in the boxes, and click "Go.
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Although deeply influenced by him, 'Abduh was less inclined to political activism and concentrated on religious, legal and educational reform. His best-known writings are a theological treatise, Risalat al-tawhid translated into English as The Theology of Unity , and an unfinished Qur'anic commentary, Tafsir al-manar The Manar Commentary , on which he collaborated with Rashid Rida. One of the key themes of these works is that since modernity is based on reason, Islam must be compatible with it. But 'Abduh's 'modernism' went hand in hand with returning to an idealized past, and his 'rationalism' was tempered by a belief in divine transcendence which limits the scope of intellectual inquiry. In ethics as in theology, he regarded the classical debates as arid and divisive, although on the issues of free will and moral law his position was in fact similar to that of the Mu'tazila. The rational liberalism which he imbibed from al-Afghani was, however, only one facet of his thought. In his youth he was drawn to Sufism and, despite his subsequent attacks on popular superstition, he seems never to have lost his respect for those who in some conditions 'have access in part to the ultimate mysteries and true insights into the visionary world' Risalat al-tawhid , in Musa'ad and Cragg 97 see Mystical philosophy in Islam.
1.10 Muḥammad ʿAbduh: The Theology of Unity (Egypt, 1898)
Egyptian scholar, journalist, theologian, jurist, grand mufti, and reformer, regarded as an architect of Islamic modernism. Educated at al-Azhar University. Adherent of the Shadhili Sufi order, although he later renounced his Sufi background. Disciple of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani d. Supported pan-Islamism and political activism. Edited the journal Al-urwah al-wuthqa The strongest bond in the s.
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Muhammad ‘Abduh: The Theology of Unity
Islam will have no truck with traditionalism, against which it campaigns relentlessly, to break its power over men's minds and eradicate its deep-seated influence. In the same cause, it has alerted and aroused the powers of reason, out of long sleep. For whenever the rays of truth had penetrated, the temple custodians intervened with their jealous forebodings. Islam raised its voice against these unworthy whisperings and boldly declared that man was not created to be led by a bridle. He was endowed with intelligence to take his guidance with knowledge and to consider the signs and tokens in the universe and in events.