It is known to have been widely introduced for trials throughout the world, though available records do not indicate that it proved successful everywhere. However, that it is widely promoted as a tropical timber tree, and as it clearly has the potential to become invasive as have so many other exotic Acacia species, special care should be taken when considering A. It is reported as being invasive only on the Cook Islands, and A. The accepted name and authority used in the Plant List is A.
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It is known to have been widely introduced for trials throughout the world, though available records do not indicate that it proved successful everywhere. However, that it is widely promoted as a tropical timber tree, and as it clearly has the potential to become invasive as have so many other exotic Acacia species, special care should be taken when considering A.
It is reported as being invasive only on the Cook Islands, and A. The accepted name and authority used in the Plant List is A. The specific epithet is from the Latin word crassus, meaning thick, and the Greek word carpus, meaning fruit, referring to the thick pods. It belongs to the Mimosoideae subfamily, section Juliflorae, tribe Acacieae. Within this tribe, A. The A. McDonald and Maslin also provide illustrations and a key to all the species in both sub-groups.
In the past, A. A putative natural hybrid is also known between A. Confirmed natural hybrids between A. However, populations of spreading shrubs only 1 m tall are also known from coastal dunes in Queensland.
The bark is hard, grey or grey-brown, with deep longitudinal furrows when mature, the inner bark being pinkish-red and fibrous. The phyllodes leaves are borne on yellowish, slightly angled branchlets which are sometimes pendulous. Phyllodes are resinous, glabrous, pale green to grey-green, normally lanceolate-falcate, broadest below the middle and curved along both margins, cm long and The phyllodes have numerous, fine, parallel, longitudinal nerves, with 3 primary and secondary nerves more evident than the rest, with the lowermost main nerves confluent at the base of the phyllode and contiguous with the lower margin for a short distance.
The pulvinus is mm long and extends further along the abaxial margin than the adaxial margin. The light golden to pale yellow inflorescences are spikes cm long, occurring in groups of in the axils of branchlet extremities. The ovary is densely hairy on the upper half. Pods are resinous, dull brown, oblong to narrowly oblong, straight, woody, usually flat, cm long, This description is adapted from McDonald and Maslin that includes a systematic treatment of the whole A.
Illustrated botanical descriptions are provided by Pedley , Simmons , Maslin and McDonald and Thomson , the latter also included an annotated bibliography. The native range of A. In north Queensland it extends from the Cape York Peninsula south to Townsville with a southern small population near Mackay. However, it is very likely that the species is present in more countries than indicated in the distribution table, for example in Africa and South America where it is currently not recorded.
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Seeds of A. Thus it is likely to be established in many more countries that it is recorded, and may be introduced further. In Queensland A. It occurs on a variety of mainly sandy soil types which include calcareous beach sands, yellow earths derived from granite, red earths on basic volcanics, red-yellow podzolics over schists, and alluvial and colluvial soils.
By contrast, New Guinea populations occur on the gently undulating terrain of the Oriomo Plateau which is a relict alluvial plain Loffler, Soils are mainly well-drained, strongly acidic clays infertile gleyed red and yellow earths, or red and yellow latosols but it also occurs on imperfectly drained soils subject to flooding in the wet season and rapid drying-out in the dry season. In Queensland, A. On coastal foredunes it occurs in low woodland associated with Casuarina equisetifolia.
On Cape York Peninsula A. Pedley and Isbell, In New Guinea it occurs in woodlands and open-forests most commonly along the ecotone between areas with impeded drainage that support low open savanna woodlands and areas of well-drained alluvium which support closed vine forests McDonald and Maslin, Commonly associated species include Acacia mangium, A.
Unique acacia forests with an even canopy dominated by either A. In Papua New Guinea A. Seedlings germinate after five days and all viable seeds have germinated after 25 days ATSC, ; Doran and Gunn, It is a nitrogen-fixing tree that produces abundant natural root nodulation.
It is fire resistant after ten years of age, and competes favourably against weed species such as Imperata cylindrica. It is reported to be tolerate salt wind, though is susceptible to damage by cyclones and strong winds. Coppicing ability varies with cutting height and provenance Ryan and Bell, and is not a suitable regeneration method for the species. Where introduced in Thailand, active shoot growth is maintained even during the dry season Puriyakorn and Luanviriyasaeng, In the native range in Queensland, flower buds were first observed when plants were at 27 months of age, with the main flowering period beginning in April to May and continuing to June and July, during the first dry and relatively cool months of the year, with pods maturing from October to November toward the end of the dry season McDonald and Maslin, ; Ryan and Bell, In open forests in Queensland, Australia, A.
In New Guinea, commonly associated species include Acacia mangium, A. Other genera present include Flindersia, Grevillea, Syzygium and Planchonella. The species readily forms natural nodulation so artificial inoculation of nursery seedlings is not essential Harwood et al. Rainfall often follows a monsoonal pattern with December-March being the wettest period.
Length of dry season ranges from around 6 months at the southern limit of the distribution in Australia to 3 months in New Guinea. Although the entire natural range of A. In its native range, it occurs on a variety of mainly sandy soil types which include calcareous beach sands, yellow earths, red earths, red-yellow podzolics, and alluvial and colluvial soils in Australia, whereas in New Guinea, it also occurs on the gently undulating terrain of the Oriomo Plateau which is a relict alluvial plain Loffler, Where introduced, it tolerates a range of soil types, particularly those of low fertility.
It has been grown successfully on mildly alkaline soils, sandy loams, peaty, highly acidic soils pH 3. Survival after planting out is usually high and trees with a bole over 10 cm in diameter at breast height are fire tolerant, producing vegetative regrowth following fires Arentz et al. In Sabah, Malaysia, A. Seeds are likely to be spread by floods down river valleys and along coasts especially during storms and cyclones.
The large seeds may be consumed by large herbivores though there are no specific reports of local distribution by animal vectors. It is very likely that it will be further introduced.
It is noted as invading open and disturbed areas in the Cook Islands, but was not reported to be invading native forest areas. No other information on the impacts of invasion of A. The wood is dense and is also suitable for burning, and it is recommended as a fuelwood and charcoal tree in Nepal Karki and Karki, The heartwood is golden brown with a reddish cast, and the sapwood is pale brown, though the heartwood of plantation-grown trees tends to be paler than wood sourced from the wild Arentz et al.
The wood is strong and durable with an air-dry density of kg per cubic metre and a basic density of kg per cubic metre. It has been used for heavy construction, furniture, boatbuilding, flooring, hardboard and veneer, and for the production of wood-wool cement composites Semple and Evans, Non-wood uses of A. It has been evaluated as a green manure in Nepal with a production rate of 0.
The bark was used traditionally to make baskets and rope by villagers in Papua New Guinea, and young roots were roasted and used as a traditional food source in Australia Cribb and Cribb, It is also useful for reclaiming grasslands invaded by Imperata Thomson, It also has good potential for shelterbelts, coastal sand dunes fixation and soil improvement and land rehabilitation on a wide range of degraded sites due to the combination of rapid growth, ability to suppress weeds, and abundant Rhizobium nodulation Doran et al.
However, A. Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Hand pulling of seedlings and small saplings are likely to prove effective in small patches.
Trees coppice so cutting of larger trees would also require removal of the roots or herbicide stump treatments. No information of herbicides specific to A. Noting earlier problems regarding the definition of taxonomical limits to the species and its relationships to other species in the A.
Specifically, a detailed assessment of the current distribution of the species is required, alongside that of other species in the group, and an updated assessment of invasions in the Cook Islands and the status of naturalised populations elsewhere where it has been recorded.
Acacia Miller. Plant resources of South-East Asia. Timber Trees: minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. ATSC, Germination test results: records of the Australian Tree Seed Centre. Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Australia's virtual herbarium AVH. Australia: Herbaria of Australia.
Growth, marcottability and photosynthesis of Acacia crassicarpa provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Recent developments in acacia planting.
Proceedings of a workshop held in Hanoi, Vietnam, October Species trials of acacias in tropical dryland Queensland, Australia. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in tropical acacia research: proceedings of a workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, February
Acacia crassicarpa A. Fabaceae Classification of the genus Acacia in the wider sense has been subject to considerable debate. It is generally agreed that there are valid reasons for breaking it up into several distinct genera, but there has been disagreement over the way this should be done. As of , it is widely but not completely accepted that the section that includes the majority of the Australian species including this one should retain the name Acacia, whilst other sections of the genus should be transferred to the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa, Senegalia and Vachellia[ K Title Plants for a Future Author Ken Fern Description Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.