ADENOKARSINOMA KOLON ADALAH PDF

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It uses the pathologic stage also called the surgical stage which is determined by examining tissue removed during an operation. This is also known as surgical staging. This is likely to be more accurate than clinical staging , which takes into account the results of a physical exam, biopsies, and imaging tests , done before surgery.

Numbers or letters after T, N, and M provide more details about each of these factors. Higher numbers mean the cancer is more advanced. For more information see Cancer Staging. The cancer is in its earliest stage.

This stage is also known as carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma Tis. It has not grown beyond the inner layer mucosa of the colon or rectum. The cancer has grown through the muscularis mucosa into the submucosa T1 , and it may also have grown into the muscularis propria T2. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes N0 or to distant sites M0.

The cancer has grown into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum but has not gone through them T3. It has not reached nearby organs. The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum but has not grown into other nearby tissues or organs T4a. It has not yet spread to nearby lymph nodes N0 or to distant sites M0. The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum and is attached to or has grown into other nearby tissues or organs T4b.

The cancer has grown through the mucosa into the submucosa T1 , and it may also have grown into the muscularis propria T2. It has spread to 1 to 3 nearby lymph nodes N1 or into areas of fat near the lymph nodes but not the nodes themselves N1c. It has not spread to distant sites M0. The cancer has grown through the mucosa into the submucosa T1.

It has spread to 4 to 6 nearby lymph nodes N2a. The cancer has grown into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum T3 or through the visceral peritoneum T4a but has not reached nearby organs. It has spread to 1 to 3 nearby lymph nodes N1a or N1b or into areas of fat near the lymph nodes but not the nodes themselves N1c. The cancer has grown into the muscularis propria T2 or into the outermost layers of the colon or rectum T3.

It has spread to 7 or more nearby lymph nodes N2b. The cancer has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum including the visceral peritoneum but has not reached nearby organs T4a.

It has spread to at least one nearby lymph node or into areas of fat near the lymph nodes N1 or N2. The cancer may or may not have grown through the wall of the colon or rectum Any T. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes. Any N. It has spread to 1 distant organ such as the liver or lung or distant set of lymph nodes, but not to distant parts of the peritoneum the lining of the abdominal cavity M1a.

The cancer might or might not have grown through the wall of the colon or rectum Any T. It might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes Any N. It has spread to more than 1 distant organ such as the liver or lung or distant set of lymph nodes, but not to distant parts of the peritoneum the lining of the abdominal cavity M1b. It has spread to distant parts of the peritoneum the lining of the abdominal cavity , and may or may not have spread to distant organs or lymph nodes M1c.

Tis N0 M0. T1 or T2 N0 M0. T3 N0 M0. T4a N0 M0. T4b N0 M0. T1 N2a M0. T2 or T3 N2a M0. T4a N2a M0. T3 or T4a N2b M0. T4b N1 or N2 M0. Any T Any N M1a. Any T Any N M1b. Any T Any N M1c.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Colorectal cancer CRC is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. CRC has both strong environmental associations and genetic risk factors. The incidence of new cases and mortality has been steadily declining for the past years, except for younger adults younger than 50 years , possibly related to an increase in cancer screening and better therapy modalities. The most important prognostic colon cancer indicator is the pathological stage at presentation. In almost all patients, a diagnostic or screening colonoscopy is required for tissue biopsy pathological confirmation of colon carcinoma. Surgical resection is the main treatment modality for localized early-stage colon cancer.

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Jurnal e-CliniC (eCl)

Moewardi Surakarta Indonesia. Sebagian besar pasien kanker kolorektal didiagnosis dalam stadium yang sudah tidak dapat dioperasi. Propolis diketahui memiliki aktivitas anti kanker. Mekanisme anti kanker propolis melalui induksi apoptosis dan juga melalui penghambatan proliferasi dalam siklus sel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji efek anti kanker ekstrak ethanol propolis EEP yang berasal dari Kerjo, Karanganyar, Indonesia pada kultur sel adenokarsinoma kolorektal cell line WiDr melalui pengaruhnya terhadap ekspresi protein Caspase 8, apoptosis dan proliferasi sel. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian experimental laboratories, post test with control group design. Penelitian dilakukan pada kultur sel WiDr dengan perlakuan pemberian dosis ekstrak ethanol propolis, kontrol positif 5-FU , kombinasi ekstrak ethanol propolis dengan 5-FU, dan kontrol negatif tanpa obat.

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