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He was assistant director at the British School at Athens, Greece, and then a lecturer in ancient history at the University of Edinburgh. Enquiries should be addressed to the Publishers. A ClP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. The Publishers regret that they can enter into no correspondence upon this matter.
This image shows Punic houses on the slopes of the Byrsa, Carthage. The site enjoyed peace' Epitome, 1. Peace, however, would be short lived, was well chosen. It was as the Romans were about to step over to Sicily, which was the first country naturally strong, situated as it was on what was normally beyond the shores of Italy on which they set foot, and cross swords with a lee shore at the head of a a potential rival in the western Mediterranean, the great Phoenician its writ effectively ran from the Levant to Iberia and from the Alps to the promontory.
The site's foundation of Carthage. That, however, is not part of our present interest. Its wealth was proverbial, with Poly bios overlooked a marine bay to the that would lock the two cities into a 'Hundred Years War'. Probably the largest This is an oblique aerial Before the first war, Rome was still a purely Italian power, not even in control power. Originally one of many landing sites and trading stations established view of the site of Carthage. After the last, with Carthage a smoking ruin, only a huddle of huts and hovels squatting by the Tiber, According to Timaios of Tauromenion FGr Hist, F 60 the settlers pitched up in BC conveniently near the mouth of the river Bagradas Oued Medjerda , having sailed directly either from the metropolis of Tyre, one of the leading seaports of Phoenicia, or from the next-door colony of Utica, founded earlier by the Phoenicians.
The Sicilian-Greek Timaios lived in the 3rd century BC, a time when it was-still possible to draw directly on Punic sources for information, but the archaeological evidence is still short of this traditional foundation date, the earliest deposits found in the sanctuary of Tanit, the tutelary goddess of the city, belonging to BC or thereabouts. Whatever the true date, Carthage was destined over time to take the place of Tyre at the head of the Phoenician world of the west, and in the process acquire sufficient power to become a rival on equal terms first with the Greeks and then with the Romans.
By the time of the outbreak of the first war, Carthage controlled the whole coast of northern Africa from Cyrenaica to the Atlantic, partly through its own colonies, partly through having taken under its aegis other Phoenician colonies, such as Utica.
Though numerous, these colonies were mostly quite small, surviving because the coastal region was apparently otherwise sparsely inhabited. Carthaginian pantheon, a phenomenon plausibly connected with the political BC Traditional date for foundation of Rome by Romulus. Iberia, which, like itself, had been originally founded by the Phoenicians, including Gadir Cadiz and Malaka Malaga.
Sardinia, including Caralis Cagliari. In Sicily Carthaginian power had been a feature for centuries, albeit of a chequered quality. Scipio takes New Carthage. Iberia ; Roman navy raids Africa Carthaginian fleet defeated off Clupea. Scipio's victory at Zama.
The epigram is Voltaire's Candide ou l'optimisme, ch. The lucky Varro was then appointed to the command of a legion, BC Scipio Aemilianus takes command in Africa tightens siege of while the unlucky survivors of the Cannae army, the common soldiers, were Carthage ; Macedonia made Roman province.
Conversely, a too-successful Carthaginian general might suffer the same slow BC Destruction of Carthage Africa made Roman province ; sack death, simply because 'the hundred' feared he might use his success and hired of Corinth; triumph of Scipio Aemilianus takes cognomen army to overturn the constitution, just as the general Bomilcar attempted to 'Africanus'.
Before we look at the armies of Carthage, therefore, it is worth heads with beards. Such heads considering the constitution of Carthage. A governor, responsible to the king have been interpreted as a representation either direct or of Tyre, ruled Carthage at first; whether or not it had its own kings by the symbolic of the main deities, 7th century BC is far from clear. It is well known that Carthage is linked, in Tanit and Baal Hammon.
The the foundation myth of the city, to the figure of a royal princess, Elishat Phoenicians were celebrated in Timaios' Elissa, Virgil's Dido , yet Punic epigraphic sources always mention antiquity as glass makers, and oligarchic-type magistracies as opposed to titles of a monarchical nature.
The Phoenician colonies were on their own, and out of this uncertainty Carthage soon emerged as the leader. At any rate, by the end of the 6th century BC the Carthaginian constitution had become decidedly oligarchic in nature. Thanks to the curiosity of Aristotle, who very much admired it as an example of what he labels a 'mixed form of government', we know something of the governmental system of the city during the period of our study.
According to Aristotle, the 'mixed constitution', Modern bronze statue of Aristotle, Plateia Aristotelous, the ideal of Greek political theory and considered the natural condition for Thessalonika. Thanks to the a civilized state, 'partakes ot" oligarchy and of monarchy and of democracy' curiosity of this Greek Politics, a2.
In Carthage it was headed by at first one, later two, annually dialectician, we know elected chief magistrates called sufetes in Latin. Aside from their judicial role, something of the constitution of Carthage during the period they presided over the ruling council, convoked it and established the working of our study. In point of fact, agenda, and obviously resembled the consuls of Rome.
This separation with in his treatise dealing with man as a political being and the of civil and military powers was extremely unusual, if not unique, in the nature of the state, the Politics. A body of men, chosen from among the councillors in office and too, but totally ignored that referred to as 'the hundred' by Aristotle e.
Politics, b35, a15 , City. It was the enormous wealth deriving from trade and tribute that made it possible for Carthage to employ mercenaries to fight on its behalf - a true privatization of warfare. By the 3rd century Be Carthaginians no longer served in Carthaginian armies, except of course as senior officers.
The last occasion citizen soldiers served overseas had ended with their massacre at the hands of the Greeks on the banks of the Krimisos in Sicily in Be. But that is to anticipate. Last, but by no means least, there was a powerful executive body, what Roman writers called 'the senate' while the Greeks used various terms, including 'Phrygian' helmet Karlsruhe, gerousia, a council of elders e.
Livy, It apparently had several hundred AG , so named because its members, who probably held office for life, but whose method of appointment shape resembled the 'Phrygian bonnet' worn during antiquity is uncertain.
Nor is it clear what was the relationship between the 'senate' and and borrowed during the the 'one hundred', though it usually assumed that the latter were members French Revolution.
The domed of the former. The powers of the citizens, however, were somewhat limited, the skull with lobate crown was only real example of their political clout being the popular election of Hannibal normally made in one piece. Barca Polybios, 3. According to Aristotle Politics, a7 , if the sufetes This helmet pattern commonly had long, pointed cheek pieces. Aristotle was writing when Carthage's power was could occasionally extend to period.
Blades were originally general a chance to gain valuable experience, something not given to a Roman at its height, and it is significant that some two centuries later Polybios says cover the whole face, leaVing short top , but improvements 6. We also hear that Carthaginian generals were held in high esteem and mouth and frequently in iron technology resulted in Of course, our knowledge of the civilization of Carthage derives mainly the fearsome slashing sword Justin, Epitome, This was a blunt- armlets as they have served campaigns' Aristotle, Politics, b Fields-Carre ended longsword, which was It was largely through 'the hundred' that the ruling elite was successful is peculiar to a Graeco-Roman institutional framework, and from the results Collection wide, flat, straight and double- in preventing the rise of tyranny through generals manipulating the mercenary of modern archaeological investigation.
Still, in the objectively positive words edged. Modern analysis of of Cicero, 'Carthage would not have held an empire for six hundred years had Celtic blades suggest they were armies that served Carthage so well.
This very well made, with a good edge and great flexibility. Also, as we shall discover in good time, some of the ancient world's finest soldiers came from the Punic family of Barca.
While the navy of Carthage was very much a citizen Enee racontont aDidon les affair, as was to be expected from a maritime power malheurs de la ville de Troie, oil with a permanent pool of trained sailors to fight in painting by Baron Pierre- its naval wars, Carthaginian armies were generally Narcisse Guerin This later poetic elaboration, of a mercenary character and tended to be raised made famous by Virgil, grandly for a particular conflict and disbanded at its end.
For the Romans, up by levies from tributary allies and a handful of however, the love of Dido for foreign mercenaries who over time became the Aeneas serves the purpose of main component. Carthaginian coinage came to be emphasizing Carthage's widely distributed throughout Sicily in the first strange and alien culture, its otherness. Citizen soldiers had been involved in the major events of the intermittent conflict against the Greeks of Sicily.
A corps d' elite, which the Greeks described as a 'Sacred Band' hieros 16chos , was made up solely of native-born Carthaginians - resident aliens in Carthage did not qualify - and was held back in reserve during battles, moving into action only when there was a possibility of defeat.
According to Plutarch Timoleon, He talks too of 10, Carthaginian foot soldiers bearing white shields who fought in the war against the Corinthian Timoleon Timoleon, Here, we need to distinguish the citizens of Carthage itself from the Punic citizens of African and overseas cities. Diodoros, who in his history of his native Sicily is often at his best, says the Sacred Band consisted of 2, men, 'citizens who were distinguished for valour and reputation as well as for wealth' From then on citizens were to be called to arms in times of national emergency, as they had been, along with the Sacred Band of Carthage, to defy the invasion force of Agathokles Diodoros, Invariably, conscripts were pressed men with little stomach for the job, and a high proportion of them had never fought before.
Polybios tells us that Hannibal's second line on the field of Zama consisted of Punic, Libyphoenician and Libyan levies hastily raised for the defence of Africa, and probably therefore with little preliminary training or previous experience. Apparently Hannibal looked upon these men as a cowardly lot, or so says Polybios Diodoros, 5. Despite being a fresh-faced tyro, our young citizen of Carthage has equipped himself well.
The great advantage of the Greek-style linen corselet 1 was its comfort, as it is more flexible and much cooler than bronze under an African sun.
It is made up of many layers of linen glued together with a resin to form a stiff shirt, about 5mm thick. Below the waist it is cut into strips, pteruges, for ease of movement, with a second layer of pteruges being fixed behind the first, thereby covering the gaps between them and forming a kind of kilt that protects the wearer's groin.
A linen corselet will not deflect glancing blows, but it will be as effective as bronze against any major thrust. To complete his body protection, he wears a 'Phrygian' helmet 2 with cheek pieces that cover all but his eyes and mouth. The cheek pieces themselves are superbly embossed with stylized curls to represent a beard and moustache.
The principal weapon of our citizen is a long thrusting spear 3. Fashioned out of polished ash wood and some 25m in length, his spear is equipped with an iron spearhead and bronze butt spike. As well as acting as a counterweight to the spearhead, the butt spike allows the spear to be planted in the ground when not in use being bronze it did not rust , or to fight with if his spear snaps in the melee.
In close-quarter combat the weapon is usually thrust overarm, the spear tip to the face of the foe, though it can be conveniently thrust underarm if charging into contact at a run.
Carthaginian Warrior 264–146 BC
Carthaginian warrior 264-146 BC
Carthaginian Warrior 264-146 BC