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It has taken a rather long time to reach its presentform. The effort has been to make it easier to understand, for teachers,parents and the educators. Assessment is a form of communication and should be seen as anintegral part of learning and teaching.
Assessment can be diagnostic,formative and summative. Assessment for learning can be recognised as centralto classroom practice. Teachers need to be sensitive and empathetic as allassessments have an emotional impact and can contribute to learner motivation. Formative Assessment helps in creating reflective learners and reflective teachers.
The judgements that teachers make need to be based on effective criteria orstandards, through information collected in a variety of ways. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationThe overall goal of assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment providesstudents, parents and teachers with valid information concerning studentprogress. Assessment requires the gathering of evidence of student performanceover a period of time to measure learning and understanding. Evidence oflearning could take the form of dialogue, journals, written work, portfolios andtests along with many other learning tasks.
We use the general term assessment to refer to all those activities undertaken byteachers and by their students in assessing themselves, that provide informationto be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities. Suchassessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is actually usedto adapt the teaching to meet student needs.
Formative as well as SummativeAssessment needs to be valid in that it tests a relevant skill or ability and reliableso that the same result is achieved if the assessment is repeated. The present Manual for teachers includes detailed information about the schemeof Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, fundamentals of assessment inco-scholastic areas, essential dimensions of School based assessment, toolsand techniques of evaluation in scholastic and co-scholastic domains, theproposed School Based Assessment Report Book and detailed guidelines foreffective implementation of the scheme in schools.
Care has been taken to includethe essential theoretical framework as well as desired implementation procedures. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationinterpretation of the profile dynamics of the learner. It is necessary to discussthe salient features of CCE Scheme with the teachers and convince them thatassessing children is not a separate activity nor is it an extra burden whichrequires additional effort or time.
It needs to be woven into the teaching learningprocess as an integral part. The Scholastic Areas will be assessed on a ninepoint scale. All activities under the Co-scholastic domain will be assessed on afive point scale. The Value Education framework draws upon values from theConstitution of India. I hope that schools will follow the CCE Scheme of School Based Assessment inthe right spirit with academic integrity which will support better learning andenable the school to achieve one of the objectives of making learning moreenjoyable by all students.
The Formative Assessment needs to be conducted through various modes rangingfrom student centric assessment tasks and peer assessment to teacher led tasks. Schools must, whenever possible, encourage teachers to attend trainingprogrammes run by the Board to build their teaching and testing skills. I also hope that parents will appreciate the need for holistic assessment andencourage their children to develop skills in all areas. Schools should also engagein a dialogue with parents to bring home to them the context and the meaningof the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation so that they are active partnersin realizing the potential of their children.
I would like to thank Prof. The tireless efforts of Prof. ForewordIn this publication, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation - Manual forTeachers, the Central Board of Secondary Education CBSE provides teacherswith rich and meaningful information about putting into practice an evaluation assessment model that is continuous in that assessment occurs over a periodof time rather than on a single occasion and comprehensive in that it incorporatesscholastic and non-scholastic aspects of learning.
As well, this model placesteacher judgment at the heart of the assessment process. As others have argued, teacher judgments can be important evidence of studentachievement. But teachers need to develop principled ways of incorporatingthose judgments into the evidentiary record on which to base their formativeand summative inferences about student achievement levels. The Manual forTeachers describes how to do this. The manual also refers to a monitoring processfor grades awarded.
Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationThe features of good assessment tasks are many and varied, but some areenduring: The task must be based on the curriculum, students must know whatis expected, students must recognise the task as worthwhile and relevant, andthe task must be capable of eliciting optimal performance from students.
Comprehensive assessment values both process and product, includes academicoutcomes, social outcomes, and generic skills. It covers a wide range of disciplinespecificknowledge dimensions declarative, conditional and procedural ; genericskills such as analysing and deducing that are used in working with ideas,information, artefacts and texts; and skills related to the personal, interpersonaland ethical dimensions of human life.
School based formative assessment, incorporating features of continuousassessment, is common to many assessment regimes. A major tendency in suchsystems is for teachers to use external tests as models for their own assessment,undermining its formative role, or to relegate formative assessment to assessmentof attitudes and behavior only, thus seriously devaluing higher-order thinking. The change in emphasis from assessment that is dominated by external summativetesting to assessment where classroom teachers have not only a formativeassessment role but also a summative assessment role can be linked to a shiftviii.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationtowards assessment tasks which emulate the kind of process-based higherordertasks thought to represent good practice. Continuous assessment is a balance between the undesirable extremes ofincessant e. In implementing a program of continuous assessment, teachers need to providesufficient but not an excess of formative assessments to allow students to developresponse techniques for the range of assessment instruments and conditionsthat will be applied.
When scheduling assessment tasks teachers need to beaware of the stage and rate of development of students to help ensure thatthere has been adequate time for students to learn sufficient subject content, sothat assessment of understanding and application is grounded in that knowledge.
While continuous assessment makes demands on teachers, it also allowsteachers the flexibility to meet them. By spreading assessment decisions overboth time and tasks, not only is the evidence used to support judgments increased,so too are the opportunities for reflection on those judgments. Teachers candivide assessment into suitably timed and sized parts in such a way that the timeallowed is less likely to be a covert criterion of assessment quality.
Furthermore,the time frame involved in continuous assessment is an important aspect ofputting together student records and providing time for teachers to reflect onthe assessment and its outcomes. Continuous assessment also provides, in away that terminal evaluation cannot, both motivation and opportunities forstudents to reflect on their work, develop strategies for improvement, anddemonstrate improvement before the final summative assessment is made.
Nevertheless, the difficulties involved for teachers in meeting the challenges posedby continuous assessment should not be understated. Experiences elsewhereshow that continuous assessment makes time-management demands onteachers and students, it can lead to over-assessment, and it can create tensionsbetween the formative and summative purposes of assessment. This manual includes some useful ideas on changing assessment practices.
The various forms of formative assessment suggested in the manual seem capableof assessing a greater range, at least, of curriculum learning than do externalexaminations.
Various distinctions are made in the manual as internal versusix. In other words,you can have internal assessment that is summative, and you can have internalassessment that is objective. But of course internal assessment is more likely tobe authentic than external examinations not only because the assessment isoccurring as close as possible to the learning but also because of the range ofassessment instruments available. Assessment tasks can be long or short, not necessarily written, done in a controlledassessment space or not, completed in a specified time or not, by studentsworking individually or in groups, with or without certain levels of teacherassistance, and so on.
Student work may be an artifact, performance, oralpresentation, computer program, extended writing, project work, rich task,fieldwork, practical work, or other demonstration of mastery. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationSome personal attributes contribute to academic performance; for example, adedication to study can be acknowledged and recorded as an observed attributein a student; it should also lead to the student doing well in academic assessment.
The academic assessment, however, should focus on actual achievement, ratherthan the personal attributes that contributed to it. In various educational systemsthe relative value attached to attributes and achievement may vary, but it isimportant not to get them confused with each other. Concerns are oftenexpressed or at least implied that judgments about personal attributes in aneducation context are biased. Writing a manual for teachers in an era of assessment reform is a balancingact.
The authors must balance being too prescriptive and not being sufficientlyhelpful. I wish them well in theirx. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationendeavours in continuous and comprehensive assessment.
This reform is infact a genuine exercise that requires teachers to change their practices fromexamination preparation to more authentic on-going assessment. If teachersdo the kind of things the reform is calling for, the change will be long-lasting,leading successfully to the kind of outcomes that were intended. The research on time-lags for achievement of change should be noted. It takesabout three years in an elementary school and depending on size about sixyears in a secondary school to see the effects of a reform.
I look forward tobeing able to note the positive effects of this particular reform in India in theyears to come. Dr Matters has had extensive experience in education as a classroom teacher physical sciences , school administrator, university lecturer, researcher, advisor,test designer and author. She has held executive management positions withinthe Australian education sector and has worked with education systems inAustralia and overseas, most recently in Tajikistan and Ethiopia. II Part 3 clause i ]Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationNo child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelledfrom school till the completion of elementary education [Chapter No.
IV Part 16]xii. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationChapter 1 Manual for TeachersContinuous andComprehensiveEvaluationAim of EducationEducation aims at making children capable ofbecoming responsible, productive and usefulmembers of a society.
Knowledge, skills andattitudes are built through learning experiences andopportunities created for learners in school. It is inthe classroom that learners can analyse andevaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, toquestion, to investigate and to think independently. The aim of education simultaneously reflects thecurrent needs and aspirations of a society as wellas its lasting values and human ideals. At any giventime and place it can be called the contemporaryand contextual articulations of broad and lastinghuman aspirations and values.
An understanding of learners, educational aims,the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the schoolas a social organization can help us arrive atprinciples to guide classroom practices. Conceptualdevelopment is thus a continuous process of1. It should include both scholastic andco-scholastic areas, i.
This is inline with the goals of education. Evaluation is continuous and reveals thestrengths and weaknesses of learners more frequently, so that the learnershave better opportunity to understand and improve themselves.
It alsoprovides feedback to the teachers for modifying their teaching strategies. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Manual for TeachersThus assessment is a useful, desirable and an enabling process. To realizethis, one needs to keep the following parameters in mind. It is a developmental process of student which emphasizeson two fold objectives. These objectives are continuity in evaluation andassessment of broad based learning and behaviourial outcomes on theother.
It means regularity ofassessment, frequency of unit testing, diagnosis of learning gaps, use ofcorrective measures, retesting and feedback of evidence to teachers andstudents for their self evaluation.
The causes of poor performance in some units arediagnosed using diagnostic tests. It can motivate children to develop good studyhabits, to correct errors, and to direct their activities towards theachievement of desired goals.
They can look intothe probable cause of the fall in performance if any, and may takeremedial measures of instruction in which more emphasis is required. Many times, because of some personal reasons, family problems oradjustment problems, the children start neglecting their studies, resultingin sudden drop in their performance. Such a holistic assessment requires maintaining an ongoing andcomprehensive profile for each learner that is honest, encouraging anddiscreet.
These assessmentscan take many forms but all of them should be as comprehensive anddiscreet as possible.
CCE Manual VI - VIII - CBSE