DESCARGAR FELDER PRINCIPIOS ELEMENTALES DE LOS PROCESOS QUIMICOS PDF

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One approach to protect the human skin against harmful effects of solar ultraviolet UV radiation is to use natural products as photoprotectors. In this work, the extract from specie Phyllanthus orbicularis K was evaluated as a protective agent against the photodamage by UVB, UVA artificial lamps and environmental sunlight exposure.

The DNA repair enzymes, E. The supercoiled and relaxed forms of DNA were separated through electrophoretic migration in agarose gels. These DNA forms were quantified to determine strands break, representing the types of lesion levels.

The results showed that, in presence of P. This work documents the UV absorbing properties of P. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus reticulatus. The rats receiving the fractions showed promising hepatoprotective activity as evident from significant changes of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, changes in serum levels of sGPT, sGOT, sALP and bilirubin and also from histopathological changes as compared to CCl 4 -intoxicated rats.

A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus Phyllanthaceae , including Glochidion. PubMed Central. Abstract Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species.

We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus F. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience.

Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria. The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further.

Clonal propagation of Phyllanthus amarus: A hepatoprotector. Background: The micropropagation protocol for Phyllanthus amarus, an important medicinal herb used widely for the treatment of hepatitis in ethnomedicinal systems, was standardized with shoot tip and single node explants.

Materials and Methods: The micropropagation was carried out for the hyperproducing ecotype phyllanthin content For micropropagation studies, the leaves were trimmed off and the shoot tips 6 mm long and nodal segments single node were used for initiation.

Results: Shoot tips and single node explants gave a maximum of 6. Upon subculturing, a shoot length of around 7 cm with an average of eight internodes per shoot was observed after 20 days in the elongation medium supplemented with BAP 0. The rooted shoots acclimatized successfully to field conditions.

Conclusion: A method for successful micropropagation of the valuable medicinal plant was established which will provide a better source for continuous supply of plants for manufacturing drugs. Unfavorable visual conditions during computer work may affect development of both eyestrain and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulder area.

The aim of the study was to investigate how direct glare affects symptom development, muscle activity, and muscle blood flow in m. Fifteen healthy young adults with normal binocular vision read text on a computer screen at an optimized computer workplace, 30 minutes with glare exposure and 30 minutes with appropriate lighting. Postural angles were continuously registered. Development of eye symptoms and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulder area were recorded using VAS scales.

Muscle activity and muscle blood flow were measured continuously using electromyography and photoplethysmography, respectively. Glare exposure resulted in significantly more pronounced eye pain, increased orbicularis muscle activity, and increased trapezius blood flow compared to reading with appropriate lighting. There were no significant differences in posture between the two light conditions.

There were also significant associations between orbicularis oculi activity and both trapezius blood flow and neck pain during both conditions. Results from the current study show that direct glare conditions cause increased eyestrain and orbicularis oculi contraction during reading on a computer screen. This study also indicates that exposure to direct glare affects the trapezius muscle, possibly by an interaction between the visual system, sympathetic nervous system, and head-stabilizing muscles.

In addition, there were associations between the use of orbicularis oculi, trapezius blood flow, and development of neck pain independent of the lighting. Evoked electromyography to rocuronium in orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in facial nerve injury in rabbits. Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show different sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves, especially in the presence of facial nerve injury.

We compared the evoked electromyography EEMG response of orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in with and without a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant in a rabbit model of graded facial nerve injury. Differences in EEMG response and inhibition by rocuronium were measured in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius muscles 7 to 42 d after different levels of facial nerve crush injuries in adult rabbits. Baseline EEMG of orbicularis oris was significantly smaller than those of the gastrocnemius.

Gastrocnemius was more sensitive to rocuronium than the facial muscles P orbicularis oris in the presence of rocuronium was negatively correlated with the magnitude of facial nerve injury but the sensitivity to rocuronium was not.

No significant difference was found in the onset time and the recovery time of rocuronium among gastrocnemius and normal or damaged facial muscles. Muscles innervated by somatic nerves are more sensitive to rocuronium than those innervated by the facial nerve, but while facial nerve injury reduced EEMG responses, the sensitivity to rocuronium is not altered. Partial neuromuscular blockade may be a suitable technique for conducting anesthesia and surgery safely when EEMG monitoring is needed to preserve and protect the facial nerve.

Additional caution should be used if there is a risk of preexisting facial nerve injury. Mimesis is a relatively widespread phenomenon among reef fish, but the ontogenetic processes relevant for mimetic associations in fish are still poorly understood. In the present study, the allometric growth of two allopatric leaf-mimetic species of ephippid fishes, Chaetodipterus faber from the Atlantic and Platax orbicularis from the Indo-Pacific, was analyzed using ten morphological variables.

The development of fins was considered owing to the importance of these structures for mimetic behaviors during early life stages. Despite the anatomical and behavioral similarities in both juvenile and adult stages, C. The overall shape of C. Although the two species are closely-related, the present results suggest that growth patterns in C. The purpose of this study was to report a transcutaneous lower eyelid blepharoplasty procedure where different amounts of skin and orbicularis oculi muscle are excised and where skin and muscle are redraped tightened separately.

A retrospective non-consecutive small case-series of patients undergoing lower eyelid blepharoplasty is described. In a nutshell, during this procedure a skin flap was fashioned caudal to the sub-ciliary pre-tarsal excess of skin to be excised , some pre-septal orbicularis oculi muscle fibers were excised in regard of the skin flap , muscle and then skin were redraped, separately. Assessment of surgical outcome was made by providing, for comparison, pictures taken before and after the procedure.

No major intra- or postoperative complications were recorded and overall postoperative outcome was judged satisfactory by both surgeons and patients. In contrast to a conventional skin-muscle lower blepharoplasty approach where, in a block, pre-tarsal skin and muscle are excised and then pre-septal skin and muscle are redraped, the technique described in the present paper allows us to excise different amounts of skin and orbicularis muscle and to redrape them separately.

Among several potential advantages, this approach preserves pre-tarsal orbicularis muscle function, allows us to apply more tension on the redraped muscle and less on the redraped skin, and avoids redraping of a relatively thick per-septal orbicularis oculi muscle over the tarsus like it is in the case of a conventional skin-muscle technique.

Phyllanthus amarus: ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology: a review. Phyllanthus amarus Schum. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia and other genital affections. It is useful in gastropathy, diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, ophthalmopathy, scabies, ulcers and wounds.

The present review covers a literature across from to Some information collected from traditional Ayurvedic texts and published literature on ethanomedicinal uses of Phyllanthus amarus in different countries worldwide.

Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of many valuable compounds such as lignans, flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins ellagitannins , polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols and alkaloids. The extracts and the compounds isolated from P. The present review summarizes information concerning the morphology, ecology, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities, clinical applications and toxicological reports of P. This review aims at gathering the research work undertaken till date on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and commercial exploitation.

Leaf micromorphology of some Phyllanthus L. Solihani, N. Comparative leaf micromorphological study was conducted of five chosen Phyllanthus L. Phyllanthaceae species, namely P. The objective of this study is to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification.

The procedures involve examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings of this study have demonstrated variations in the leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in the types of waxes present on adaxial and abaxial epidermis surfaces, in the stomata and types of trichome.

Diagnostics characters found in this study are the presence of papilla in P. The result of this study has shown that leaf micromorphological characters have some taxonomic significance and can be used in identification of species in the genus Phyllanthus. Addition of Kinesio Taping of the orbicularis oris muscles to speech therapy rapidly improves drooling in children with neurological disorders. To evaluate the effects of Kinesio Taping KT of the orbicularis oris muscles as an adjunct to standard therapy for drooling.

Fifteen children with neurological disorders and drooling received speech therapy and twice-weekly KT of the orbicularis muscles over a day period. Drooling was assessed by six parameters: impact on the life of the child and caregiver; severity of drooling; frequency of drooling; drooling volume estimated by number of bibs used ; salivary leak; and interlabial gap. Seven markers of oral motor skills were also assessed.

KT of the orbicularis oris region reduced the interlabial gap. In this sample of children with neurological disorders, adding KT of the orbicularis oris muscles to speech therapy caused rapid improvement in oral motor skills and drooling.

Electromyographic characteristic of orbicularis oris in patients with dental crowding in permanent occlusion. A Student's t-test was used to analyze statistical difference between different groups.

Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis Rhodophyta, Bangiales.

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