Throughout his career Hindemith set out to compose at least one sonata for every instrument. His Trombone Sonata was composed in , and is in four short movements. There is an indication that Hindemith initially composed three movements and then added the fourth later on, which shadows the opening movement and brings suitable thematic closure to the work. Hindemith fully utilizes both the trombone and piano in this sonata, offering a real challenge for any duo. The strict rhythms and quick changes keeps the performers on their toes throughout, making it a truly exciting work. Hindemith is known for creating mutli-movement works, and his Trombone Sonata is no different.
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The bracketed numbers tell you the precise instrumentation of the ensemble. The first number stands for Flute , the second for Oboe , the third for Clarinet , the fourth for Bassoon , and the fifth separated from the woodwinds by a dash is for Horn.
Sometimes there are instruments in the ensemble other than those shown above. Whenever this occurs, we will separate the first four digits with commas for clarity. Thus a double reed quartet of 2 oboes, english horn and bassoon will look like this:. Titles with no bracketed numbers are assumed to use "Standard Instrumentation. Following many of the titles in our Brass Ensemble catalog, you will see a set of five numbers enclosed in square brackets, as in this example:.
The bracketed numbers tell you how many of each instrument are in the ensemble. The first number stands for Trumpet , the second for Horn , the third for Trombone , the fourth separated from the first three by a dot for Euphonium and the fifth for Tuba.
Titles listed in our catalog without bracketed numbers are assumed to use "Standard Instrumentation. Following many of the titles in our String Ensemble catalog, you will see a set of four numbers enclosed in square brackets, as in this example:. These numbers tell you how many of each instrument are in the ensemble. The first number stands for Violin , the second for Viola , the third for Cello , and the fourth for Double Bass. Thus, this string quartet is for 2 Violas and 2 Cellos, rather than the usual The system used above is standard in the orchestra music field.
The first set of numbers before the dash represent the Woodwinds. The set of numbers after the dash represent the Brass. Percussion is abbreviated following the brass.
Strings are represented with a series of five digits representing the quantity of each part first violin, second violin, viola, cello, bass. Other Required and Solo parts follow the strings:.
Instruments shown in parenthesis are optional and may be omitted. The Beethoven example is typical of much Classical and early Romantic fare. In this case, the winds are all doubled 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons , and there are two each horns and trumpets.
There is no low brass. There is tympani. Strings are a standard configuration 4 first violin, 4 second violin, 3 viola, 2 cello, 2 bass. Sometimes strings are simply listed as "str," which means strings. The second example is common for a concert band or wind ensemble piece.
Note the inclusion of the saxes after bassoon for this band work. Note also that the separate euphonium part is attached to trombone with a plus sign. For orchestral music, saxes are at the end see Saxophones below. Multiples, if any, are not shown in this system. The numbers represent only distinct parts, not the number of copies of a part. In the third example, we have a rather extreme use of the system. Note: This system lists Horn before Trumpet.
This is standard orchestral nomenclature. Also, it should be noted that Euphonium can be doubled by either Trombone or Tuba. Typically, orchestra scores have the tuba linked to euphonium, but it does happen where Trombone is the principal instead. Saxophones , when included in orchestral music they rarely are will be shown in the "other instrument" location after strings and before the soloist, if any. Letters that are duplicated as in A in this example indicate multiple parts. Hickeys Music Center.
Hindemith, Paul Sonata 20th Century. Angular yet tonal, set in four contrasting attaca movements. This work is one of the cornerstone compositions in the trombone repertoire. Brass Instrumentation Codes Following many of the titles in our Brass Ensemble catalog, you will see a set of five numbers enclosed in square brackets, as in this example: Description Price Copland Fanfare for the Common Man [ This is a special instrumentation adopted and perfected by the Philip Jones Brass Ensemble.
It consists of the forces In addition, there are often doublings in the Trumpet section - Piccolo and Flugelhorn being the most common. While this instrumentation has come to be common, it is still not "Standard" as many Brass Dectets use very different forces, most often with more Horns than PJBE.
Example 1 - Beethoven: [2,2,2,,2,0,0, tymp, ] The Beethoven example is typical of much Classical and early Romantic fare. Example 3 - MacKenzie: a fictional work, by the way. Copland Fanfare for the Common Man [ Beethoven Symphony No 1 in C, op 21 [2,2,2,,2,0,0, tymp, ].
Hindemith, Paul Sonata (1941)
Paul Hindemith ‘Trombone Sonata’: Best of Brass
Trombone Sonata (Hindemith, Paul)