|Published (Last):||23 July 2010|
|PDF File Size:||11.68 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.58 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Map of the Seljuk Sultanate in Anatolia between made by the author Map showing Kubadabad Complex and the extent of the settlement Detail from the original Seljuk inscription from the mosque of Kubadabad Map of the Kubadabad Palace Complex showing the different courts, important buildings, and access ways Plan of the second court with indicated access ways Plan of the third court with indicated access ways Plan of the Great Palace Ground floor plan of the Small Palace North-south section from the Small Palace Photo of the stucco niches found in-situ in the room I-h Stucco fragment showing a hunting scene Tile dado panel in the Great Palace Square tile with a figure on horseback from Konya Kiosk, Konya Star-shaped tile showing a figure with bow and arrow from Kubadabad 63 Figure Reconstruction of a tile panel with depictions of various animals, simurg and human figures from Great Palace in Kubadabad, Konya Karatay Museum Star-shaped tiles with duck and peacock motifs surrounded by floral motifs from Kubadabad Three tiles in different techniques showing a seated human figure surrounded by plants from Kubadabad Fragment of a star-shaped luster tile with a human figure working in the garden from Kubadabad Illustration from kitab al-diryaq showing a human figure working in the garden Star-shaped tile showing a human figure working in the garden from Keykubadiye Fragments from square tiles with an inscription band around a central medallion Star-shaped tiles with epigraphic decorations Fragment of a cross-shaped tile City walls of Konya by Leon de la Borde Palaces serve as seats of government that contain spaces for administrative, political, and ceremonial functions.
Finally, palaces take on representative and rhetorical tasks, in displaying the wealth and power of their patron through their architectural and decorative qualities. In this sense, it might be very helpful in understanding the historical context of this period. It is a physical manifestation of the ruler's power and ability to build; and at the same time, by having built so impressively, the ruler has further demonstrated his power and ability to command resources, induce astonishment, and create a fitting seat of government-in short, to rule.
Pre-Modern Islamic Palaces : The growth of the realm in Anatolia and military successes of the Seljuks was further accompanied by the expansion of the trade routes and ports that would revive the trade and improve the finances.
These novelties in the structure of the state changed the administrative system; while the ruler started to move between the different parts of his realm, his throne and palace followed him. The gathering of power in the hand of the sultan was linked to the process of centralization, which required a common standardized visual language that would raise the recognition of Seljuk sovereignty in the newly established palaces and royal projects throughout the Seljuk realm and create an adequate royal rhetoric defining the image of the sultan and courtly ceremonies.
However, the process of renewal during the reign of Ala al-Din Kaykubad I manifested itself not only in the architectural projects built but also in the cultural production of the Seljuk court. This thesis attempts to define common rhetoric elements and topics in royal architecture and court literature of Seljuks in the thirteenth century Anatolia. The Seljuks took nature as a major model of thought and organization along with religion and legends.
In this regard, the object of the following thesis will be narrowed down to the discussion of palace architecture and courtly narratives on palatial structures. The above-mentioned palace of Kubadabad will hereby serve as an example of the palaces built during the Seljuk golden age in Anatolia. The palace once built and used as a hunting and summer estate stands out with its in-situ decoration, offering a great range of figurative tiles. Therefore, Kubadabad has been a major source and topic for the Seljuk studies in Anatolia, particularly in the light of the excavation works that continue since the s.
The decisive victory at the Battle of Manzikert in gained by the Great Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan against the Byzantine army has led to an influx from the East giving way to Turkification and Islamization of Anatolia. In the following periods, Turks and Turkmen tribes showed continuously growing presence in Anatolia. Among many other Turkmen principalities in Anatolia, the Rum Seljuks rose to power. Despite the Great Seljuk bloodline of the Rum Seljuk dynasty, sultans acquired authority and legitimacy by eliminating their rivals, and by building diplomatic contacts and familial alliances.
These early years of the Sultanate characterized by tribal organization, and continuous warfare ended rulers dedicated themselves to strengthen and improving Rum-Seljuk in Anatolia. In the following years, the Seljuks managed to grow the boundaries of the Anatolian Seljuk realm towards the seaports in the north and south, taking control the sea trade in addition to trade routes they held on land. This expansion was accompanied by a revival or renewal of existing structures in Seljuk Anatolia.
This included the improvement of route networks, re- building of facilities for stopovers such as caravanserais, the revival of larger trade hubs or cities through the foundation of charitable facilities, and trade treaties with other lands. The sultan - but also dynasty members and elites - further supported to the improvement of public wealth by investing into the building of mosques, masjids, madrasas, hospitals, fountains, baths, and water supply systems.
Their successful reforms considering politics and finances had influences in all parts of life, above all in society and courtly life. The increased number of artifacts and architectural projects commissioned by the dynasty and court members during this period provide evidence for these new reforms, royal rhetoric, as well as for the wealth that came along with the stabilization of the authority.
Map of the Seljuk Sultanate in Anatolia between made by the author A special role in this process of renewal - i. Kaykubad I was particularly known as one of the most active sultans of this dynasty, whose legacy survived in the great number of architectural projects patronized by him that are spread through Anatolia.
In regarding this, we might see foundations of a new orientation or hints for a new role model beginning from the reign of Qilich Arslan II. These names, as the stories of the Shahnama, are products of the attempt to merge two different cultures; the pre-Islamic Persian and the Islamic cultures.
The Persian poet Ferdowsi, who completed the original work for the Turkish ruler of Ghazna, provided a world history based on Persian legends and heroes who were integrated to the history as ancestors of the contemporary eleventh-century Islamic rulers of Iran.
The Seljuks of Anatolia might have seen role models in the deeds of former Turkish-Muslim rulers, amongst other the sultans of the Great Seljuks. According to Peacock, the names, as well as, the use and appreciation of Persian language and literature demonstrated the growing importance of Iranian culture beginning from the late 12th Century.
The interest in the Persian past is visible in various examples from Kaykubad's reign. One of the first authorities to accept his legitimacy and to cooperate with was the caliph al-Nasr al- Din Allah, who sent him the scholar Shihab al-Din Omar b. Abd Allah al-Suhravardi with gifts.
Protection was not only granted from the religious entities, but Kaykubad made further arrangements with surrounding rulers to ensure his position facing both internal and external threats. The Mongol armies approaching from the Eastern lands required further attention and caution to foreign issues, as well as cooperation between lands. Despite such false alerts, the news of the Mongol attacks increased. The Mongol threat was more than a foreign issue, but it affected also the domestic politics and required different strategies in every aspect of governance.
On the one side, Anatolia went through a continuous influx from Central Asia that was intensified with the Mongol invasion.
People from the Persianate world fled to Anatolia, the furthest western frontier of the Islamic world seeking for a peaceful life without Mongol treat. The immigrants were this time not only the Turkic nomadic tribes but also skillful artisans, religious scholars and well-educated members of Persian aristocracy and courtiers.
They brought important skills and knowledge for the establishment of a higher culture at the court. The arrival of large populations must have affected the existing settlement structures, forcing cities to grow beyond borders and increasing the need for new infrastructures and public facilities.
Similarly, the integration of immigrants to Anatolia and increasing requirements for natural resources and their supply must have been some of the greatest concerns of the Sultan. This sanction ensured the security of the cities from foreign powers.
At the same time, the construction, and financing of these huge building projects kept amirs, who stood hesitating over the rise of Kaykubad to power and distrusted him, busy for some time.
The distraction of amirs allowed the new Rum-Seljuk Sultan to eliminate further problems and to show his military skills by initiating further military campaigns with powers both on land and on the sea.
Next campaigns were 2 Wolper, Cities and saints: Sufism and the transformation of urban space in medieval Anatolia One of the main targets was the trade city of Sudak, which has been left without control after the Mongols.
In doing so, he would re-establish the security of trade routes. Thus, following this idea, Kaykubad's decisions all appear to be influenced mainly by the approaching threat of Mongols. The strengthening of foreign relations with neighbor principalities and kingdoms allowed the creation of buffer zones consisting of vassal and ally states. Annexation to the Abbasid Caliphate to guarantee the support of Islamic states, too, was part of Sultan's strategy as much as his deeds in terms of the domestic affairs.
While building projects helped to create a consistent settlement and road networks, greater projects such as building walls and military facilities provided more security for the Seljuk subjects in Anatolia, and kept -in addition to his frequent visits - Seljuk governors and amirs on a tight rein.
Especially Kubadabad stands out from this group of royal projects as the only - known palace to be built in the rural area, remote from the main Seljuk cities. The fact that the patron was titled as the governor of Kubadabad gave the final evidence that this was the right spot. Oxford: Archaeopress, The first excavation campaigns in Kubadabad began in thanks to the German financial supports that covered nearly all the costs.
In the same year, they published together first introductory reports that provided an overview of the results of the work made by Oral. Artifacts that were found during these campaigns were discussed separately according to their location, themes, and materials glass, ceramic, coins, stucco with an emphasis on tile decoration. The report was further accompanied by the first ground plans of these two 6 Katharina Otto-Dorn was a German art historian, who came to Turkey in the s.
She established the Chair for Islamic art at the University of Ankara, where she introduced a new understanding with origins in the formalist teachings of Josef Strzygowski The excavations in Kubadabad were an example of her approach that united the disciplines of archaeology and art history. Amongst her books on Turkish ceramics, Islamic art, and papers on diverse Islamic and Seljuk motifs and symbols, the most valuable source for this thesis are her reports about the afore-mentioned excavations.
Jahrhundert Stuttgart. In Memoriam Ernst Diez Istanbul Despite the shortness of the working period, these documents, the drawings have built the basis for the later studies and works around Kubadabad.
Important User Information: Remote access to EBSCO's databases is permitted to patrons of subscribing institutions accessing from remote locations for personal, non-commercial use. However, remote access to EBSCO's databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution. Source: Turk Dunyasi Arastirmalari. The metal findings of the palace famous with its worldwide known tiles hold a very rich repertoire.
Kubadabad Sarayi , Beysehir 3. Historic Site Tourist Spot. Kubadabad Sarayi is located in Beysehir. Our Beysehir road trip planner makes visiting Kubadabad Sarayi and other Beysehir attractions simple, and helps you make a travel plan personal to you. Kubadabad Sarayi Reviews Rate this attraction. TripAdvisor Traveler Rating. You have to work hard to see the palace there.
Arik, Rüçhan. Kubad Abad. Selçuklu Saray ve Çinileri. [Kubad Abad. Tiles of the Seljuk Palace]