When the rains come to Western Europe every fall, gardeners start preparing for the onslaught of a perennial adversary, the snail. Pest experts emerge to offer such advice as copper sheet linings and vinegar spray to keep the mollusks from consuming vineyards and vegetables and invading homes. For an animal that moves at about. But a group in Cherasco, in Italy's Piedmont region, is dedicated to the opposite goal: to multiply these often useful and always delicious invertebrates in the most efficient way possible. In September of this year, the International Institute of Heliciculture in Cherasco held their 48th annual meeting in this region of Italy better known for its Nebbiolo, truffles and the Slow Food movement which of course uses the snail as its symbol. The Cherasco conference draws escargot enthusiasts from fields ranging from the culinary to the cosmetic, to pharmaceuticals and even alternative medicine.
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Preparation and evaluation of appertized from snail Helix aspersa M. University of Maule. Carmen Casilla 7—D Curico, Chile. This study includes the development and evaluation of snails Helix aspersa M. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of appertized on sensory attributes and commercial durability of snail Helix aspersa M.
Additionally, some specific objectives were proposed as follow: to provide this mollusc with a commercial alternative for it consume, to evaluate its organoleptic characteristics and guarantee the product from both the microbiological and nutritional points of view. The product was assessed at two different times, after 30 and 90 days of storage.
Two sensory evaluations were conducted to measure various organoleptic attributes and acceptability of the appertized by 14 trained panelists. Amino acid, vitamins, cholesterol, acidity, heavy metals, phosphorus and organochlorines analysis were performed. The presence of both total and fecal contaminant microorganisms was determined. Attributes such as color, flavor, aroma, texture and overall acceptability were also measured.
Preserves made by T 0 and T 1 treatments were equally accepted by the panelists. However, preserve from treatment T 2 was rejected because of the detection in them of a very dark color, odor and mealy texture.
Positive results regarding the content of amino acids, vitamin C and low cholesterol, as well as the absence of pathogenic microorganisms were obtained for the three treatments. Key words: Helix aspersa M. El objetivo general fue evaluar la influencia del apertizado en los atributos sensoriales y durabilidad comercial de los caracoles. Palabras clave: Helix aspersa M. Chile has very favorable conditions for snail breeding for instance the climate is mild temperate which facilitates reproduction over a longer period of the year, compared with Europe, where long cold winters cause the animal to stay longer in hibernation, which is the reason behind the production under controlled environments, meaning higher costs of production Daguzan, The conservation of this mollusk through an appertized, together its sensory, nutritional and security evaluation, would allow the potential buyer to be sure of what is being bought and to appreciate its organoleptic characteristics after long storage period Corfo, ; Achipia, a.
In Chile, the information on physico—chemical, microbiological and organoleptics for the crude product as well as for the appertized, using tinbased containers, is scarce and fragmented Schmidt—Hebbel and Pennacchiotti, Therefore, in was born the food sanitary regulation in Chile which is also used by appertized products such us of the present research to support the sanitary condition of the final product elaborate Achipia, b. This study, hypothesized that: the appertizing process would contribute to optimize the organoleptic characteristics and acceptability of snails Helix aspersa M.
The general objective in the present research was to evaluate the influence of appertizing on the sensory attributes and commercial durability of snails Helix aspersa M. To support the hypothesis and the general objectives it was developed the following specific objectives, to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics and acceptability of the mollusk, through appertizing. Besides to guarantee from the microbiological and nutritional points of view the consumption of appertizing snails.
Raw material Helix aspersa M. For the preparation of conservate or appertized, mL glass containers were used with a net weight of g. A completely randomized design in blocks and the experimental unit was the 15 units of snail in a mL bottle. It was applied three treatments with three replication and also for chemical, microbiology and sensory evaluations were used snails samples from four bottles plus three replication.
After the conserved product was stabilized, i. Sensory evaluations were conducted with the participation of 14 panelists, who were properly trained prior to the analysis, according to the assessment guides used Figure 2 and Figure 3. The panelists abstained from smoking, eating and drinking one hour before tasting. Furthermore, they rinsed their mouth between the tasting of each sample, to avoid confusion later Stone and Sidel, The test was applied by researchers who at random selected samples with different treatments, offering the attributes measured such as; aroma, color, flavor and texture in non—structured records, besides appearance and general acceptability of the snails, using a structured— type record in this case Witting, Guide for sensory evaluation of snails appertized.
You have been selected to participate in the sensory evaluation of snail appertized, product about to hit the market. You will receive a sample of the product and your opinion is sought according to the sensory evaluation sheet attached. You are asked to mark with a vertical cross over 13 cm line in each parameter, depending on the degree of perceived intensity from low to intense, from left to right, respectively.
Guide for general acceptance of snails appertized. Circle the score indicating its acceptability, according to a 1 — 9 scale, corresponding to the indicated grades from unacceptable to excellent, respectively. The absence of total coli forms and fecal contaminants was confirmed for the three treatments of snails appertized, both after 30 days, considered time 0 in storage and at 90 days considered time 1.
The absence of thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, both the Clostridium sp. These results were according to the chilean food microbiology regulation Reglamento Sanitario de los Alimentos, which must be considered before the consumer may include it in their normal diet.
Present research supports the previously mentioned authors because they are references in food safety related with molluscs and fish as well as well hygienic practices in the food industry. The results obtained in the microbiological evaluation, allowed to verify the effectiveness of the procedures used for cleaning and disinfection during the development of this study, also checked that the temperatures used in the process were appropriate. Regarding the content of amino acids, it was noted the presence of most of the essential amino acids such as isoleucine, phenylalanine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan in the three treatments.
Cholesterol content, acidity and vitamin C, is shown in Table 4 and Table 5. The results obtained for the three treatments of the present study showed a content below the limit, being even more pronounced in treatments T 0 and T 1. With respect the presence of vitamin C in snail meat, the recommended daily allowance is 60 mg to maintain a total body of a gram and a half.
When food is packaged or conserved, it often contains residual oxygen which can react with the food and cause rancidity, loss of color, among others, but the natural or added vitamin C, is responsible for fixing or removing this oxygen INTA, ; Festy, ; Challem y Block, Results from the determination of heavy metals, lead Pb , arsenic As , antimony Sb and tin Sn , in addition, organochlorine and organophosphorus are shown in Table 6.
Appertized under the three treatments showed a low content of heavy metals and it was not detected in them the existence of organochlorines and phosphorus, which is of great importance to the future health of consumers, as these compounds can become serious contaminants.
According to Gallo studies involving the soft body of the snail for the determination of oligoelements in the specie H. This coincides with the results obtained in the present study in which the amount of lead was less than 0. In general, all the results from chemical evaluations conducted in each of the treatments, allowed to corroborate the results from other studies that positioned the terrestrial snail meat among the best food in terms of quality and nutrition.
Results at time 0, equivalent to 30 days of storage and time 1, at 90 days of storage, are presented in Tables 7 and 8, respectively. The results of analysis of variance calculated for the attribute color, showed that in both storage times there were statistically significant differences between treatments T 0 , T 1 and T 2 , and Tukey test determined that the T 1 treatment differed from the rest.
The statistical difference of T 1 , is provoked by a higher score given by the panelists in the sensory evaluation sheet with respect to the perceived intensity of this attribute. The panelists felt that snails under T 1 treatment showed a lighter color which contrasted with darker color for T 0 and T 2.
Color results presented by T 1 is justified by the presence of ingredients as kilol and citric acid in this treatment Table 7. Meanwhile citric acid in packed pork meat, stabilizes the color; additionally, for the case of bacon and cured meats, it promotes the appearance of color and prevents black spots on shrimp ISP, Scores given by the panelists with respect the intensity perception for this attribute was similar for each treatment. They considered that for snails from T 0 , T 1 and T 2 the trend showed bland flavor.
The ingredients used in the manufacture of each conservated food or treatment had no significant impact on the flavor of the snails Table 8. Only some panelists, in the comments and observations of the evaluation sheet, showed that those with T 2 treatment presented a flavor similar to olives. This last, because one of the ingredients of T 2 was extra virgin olive oil.
According to the evaluation of the panelists, preserves under T 2 treatment had a higher score. They perceived, in this treatment, a sensory attribute intensity as highly strong smell and unpleasant.
Different was the assessment for preserves with T 0 and T 1 , which were evaluated with a bland and pleasant aroma, similar to freshly prepared snail. The big difference in the content of T 2 relative to T 0 and T 1 was the use of extra virgin olive oil as a medium of cover, also the antioxidant tocopherol and some spices were added.
Perhaps the negative result in the attribute aroma, was as a result of deterioration or decomposition of olive oil, after being subjected to high temperatures for sterilizing the appertized. When oxidation is the main problem in the deterioration of the oil, the amount of oil that undergoes these changes may be small, but resulting odors are strong, very sharp and out of proportion to the volume of oil damaged Desrosier, According to the evaluation given to the three treatments by the panelists, preserves under T 2 treatment received the lowest score regarding the texture attribute.
According to the panelists, snails texture for T 2 treatment was described as mealy. Different evaluation received treatments T 0 and T 1 in which the texture achieved higher values, being more cohesive and described as similar to the original texture of the mollusk Table 8. The negative results for T 2 for this sensory attribute, are due to oxidation and decomposition of the olive oil. According Desrosier oxidation can influence the texture resulting in product viscosity. In relation to the generally accepted treatment, preserves made as T 0 and T 1 , were similarly accepted by the panelists.
Preserves from treatment T 2 were rejected, as very dark color, odor and mealy texture were detected on them. The general acceptance of snails with treatments, T 0 and T 1 by the panelists, is justified by the positive results of these two treatments presented in the evaluation of sensory attributes, flavor, aroma and texture and the color, especially in T 1. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show different sensory profiles from the evaluated snails appertized T 0 , T 1 and T 2.
In Figure 4 , it can be seen that for both evaluation times, 30 and 90 days of storage, for treatment with snails under T 0 , the perceived quality attribute with a higher degree of intensity by the panelists was the texture. The attributes, flavor, aroma and color were perceived at a lower intensity than texture, but similar between them. Regarding preserves in treatment T 1 , quality attributes perceived with greater intensity by the panelists were texture and color.
The two remaining attributes, flavor and aroma, were perceived at a lower intensity. Mollusks in treatment T 1 were those with the highest widespread acceptance and also the best evaluation of all quality parameters present in the evaluation guide used by the panelists. In studies on preserved snails, it was concluded that the addition of additives such as citric acid 0. Figure 5 shows the sensory profile of snails with treatment T 2 , showing that in both evaluation times the aroma attribute was perceived with a greater degree of intensity, but in this case, negatively evaluated by the panelists as, 'strong and unpleasant'.
Appertized preparations with this treatment were rejected by the panelists. It can be said, that according to the responses obtained in the two evaluation guides used for the sensory evaluation and analysis of data, only the T 0 and T 1 treatments are recommended, T 2 treatment descarted by the refusal of the panelists. Citric acid was used for T 1 , proving its efficiency when considering this treatment was the one with the highest acceptance by the panelists.
This project received internal funding from the Catholic University of Maule U. Available in: www. Reglamento Sanitario de los Alimentos Decreto de ley de Mayo de Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Tin in Canned Foods. Official Methods for Chemical elements in food of animal origin. Mercury Methyl in fish and shellfish.
Heliciculture: Out of Poverty with Snails
The present invention relates to a rigid structure endowed with features and elements necessary for raising snails both outdoors and in interiors It is an invention that belongs, within the livestock sector, to the helicicultura, leaning for its design and development in own knowledge and research belonging to the field of zoology, and particularly in the Physiology and behavior of snails. Human consumption of land snails has occurred since ancient times. The snail, Helix Aspersa , needs humid environments to live, although dry to take refuge, and it needs to feed considerable amounts of green plants in relation to its size. The obtaining of this type of snails has been carried out until a few years ago by direct collection, going to the places and at the most favorable times. Direct snail rearing began commercially a few years ago, when they had developed some elements that facilitate its confinement in specific areas Although apparently slow, the snail can travel distances of several meters a day, and are able to climb vertical surfaces and even move forward lower horizontal surfaces.
Manual de crianza de escargos : helicicultura 
Arbinaga, A. Universidad de Oriente - Ncleo Monagas. Maturn, Venezuela. Contenido documental relacionado Carpetas Nm. Abdel-Rehim, A. Abdi, K. Histochem and Cytochem.